L.Biermann, A.Schluter, "Cosmic Radiation and Cosmic Magnetic Fields. II. Origin of Cosmic Magnetic Fields", Phys.Rev. 82, 863 (1951).
[ Cylind vs Sphere forces >> turbulent field energy ~ Temperature ]

E.N. Parker, "The Solar Hydromagnetic Dynamo", Geophysics, 43, 8 (1957).
[ Sun Dipole =1.G; MHD Eqns; magnetic buoyancy; hydromagnetic dynamo (a la Elasser); magnetic diffusion & coalescence; bands of B_toroidal beneath surface; convective cells "carry the lines of force"]

E.N.Parker, "Dynamics of the Interplanetary Gas and Magnetic Fields", Ap.J. 128, 664 (1958)
[ SolWind >> B_radial , HydroCorona T=3e6K ]

Leverrett Davis, E.J. Smith, P.J. Coleman Jr, C.P. Sonett,
"Interplanetary Magnetic Measurements" [ Mariner-2 data with large systematic errors;
yet "characteristics similar to those expected on the basis of theory";
tendency to "use this [Parker] model, together with our data, to infer the [residual] spacecraft-field";
IMF is "consistent with general model ... of an Archimedes spiral", +/- polarity, "magnetic field lines ...tend to be dragged out by the solar wind" ]

N.F. Ness, J.M. Wilcox, "Solar Origin of the Interplanetary Magnetic Field", Phys.Rev.Lett. 13, 461 (1964)
[ IMP-1 satellite data. IMF is "consistent with general model ... of an Archimedes spiral", +/- polarity, "magnetic field lines ...tend to be dragged out by the solar wind" ]

N.F. Ness, "Measurements of the Magnetic Fields in Interplanetary Space and the Magnetosphere", NASA 19660006762
[ IMF: Pioneer.5, Explorer.2, Mariner.2,4, IMP-1,3 ;
"The magnetized solar plasma contains a field of approximately 5gammas which is directed along the classical Archimedean spiral predicted by Parker;"
"deduced conclusively to bew of solar origin, is structured into 4 sectors;"
"interpreted on the basis of the 'frozen-in' flux concept introduce by Alfven"

N.F. Ness, J.M. Wilcox, "Sector Structure of the Quiet Interplanetary Magnetic Field", Science, New Series 148, 1592 (1965)

K.H. Schatten, J.M. Wilcox, N.F. Ness, "A Model of the Interplanetary and Coronal Magnetic Fields", Solar Physics 6, 442 (1969)
[ "transport the [transverse] solar magnetic field to a position near the earth";
"frozen field approximation";
current=0 below Source Surface at 1.7*Rsun;
Guesstimation EnergyDensity plots;
"Green's function solution" with Monopoles M =>> radial component only;
"The source surface tends to smooth out the photospheric field on a scale comparable to Rsou-Rsun";

K.H. Schatten, "Large-Scale Properties of the Interplanetary Magnetic Field",
[ Invited Review: Monopolar Source Surface & Spirals ]

E.J. Smith, "Radial Gradients in the Interplanetary Magnetic Field between 1.0 and 4.3 AU"
[ Pioneer.10 "observations agree with theory",
after conflating "steady" with "fluctuating"

K.H. Schatten, "Coronal Magnetic Field Models"
Rev. Geophysics & Space Physics, 13, 589 (1975)
[ "largest scale detailed tracing of field lines achieved by man"
[Maxwell Eqns] "can apply so rigorously over an astronomical scale"
r^-2 IMF "consistent with the Parker (1958) Archimedian spiral"
Ness/Wilcox data for IMF @earth "consistent on average with Parker's spiral model;"
but "proper handling of electric currents within the corona is one of the major problems facing coronal models"

Leverett Davis Jr, A.S. Goldhaber, M.M. Nieto,
"Limit on the Photon Mass Deduced from Pioneer-10 Observations of Jupiter's Magnetic Field"
[ Pioneer-10, spherical.harmonics (w/o Monopole!!) -> Photon.Mass.Upper.Limit }

Hannes Alfven, "Electric Currents in Cosmic Plasmas"
Rev. Geophysics & Space Physics, 15, 271 (1977).
[ Static electric field E_parallel =/ 0 = energy source ]
[ ** B-field DOES NOT MOVE ] [ "To ask whether a field line 'moves' or not has no meaning"
"frozen-in concept is very often invalidated ...
has led to serious misunderstanidng of important phenomena, particularly
when combined with the 'magnetic field line reconnection' concept ('magnetic merging')"
[ ** 4 Models (including Parker Spiral), all COMPLETE ELECTRIC CIRCUITS **]
[ "Double Layers" are effectively plasma CAPACITORS' ]
[ "eliminating electric currents" is a mistake ]

Beha78 >br> K.W. Behannon,
"Heliocentric Distance Dependence of the Interplanetary Magnetic Field",
Rev. Geophysics & Space Physics, 16, 125 (1978)
[ ~~ proverbial 'Toe the Line, Hoe the Field' ]
[ conflates persistent with fluctuations ; strong statements of agreement w/ Parker Spiral ]

B.T.Thomas, E.J. Smith,
"The Parker Spiral Configuration of the Interplanetary Magnetic Field Between 1 and 8.5 A.U.",
J. Geophysical Research, 85, 6861 (1980).
[ "field directions are found, on average, to conform to the Parker spiral directions" ]

L.F. Burlaga, L.W. Klein, R.P. Lepping, K.W. Behannon
"Large-Scale Interplanetary Magnetic Fields: Voyager 1 and 2 Observations between 1 AU and 9.5 AU"
[ V1, V2 1->9.5AU |B| ~ 4.75 (1+R^2)^.5 * R^-2
[ "strength B ... in agreement with the spiral field model"
[ "fluctuations in B relative to the mean field was large"

J.T. Hoeksema, "The Solar Magnetic Field Since 1976" [ Source.Surface 'MonoPole' Expansion

L.W. Klein, L.F. Burlaga, N.F. Ness
"Radial and Latitudinal Variations of the Interplanetary Magnetic Field"
J. Geophysical Research, 92, 9885 (1987)
[ "Observations of the radial variation of the large-scale magnetic field
[ strength in the ecliptic agree with the predictions of Parker's model
[ when temporal variations in the magnetic field and bulk speed are taken into account"

K.W. Behannon, L.F. Burlaga, J.T. Hoeksema, L.W. Klein,
Spatial Variation and Evolution of Heliospheric Sector Structures"
[ variation & evolution 1->25.AU, 5->27degLat;
[ V1,V2, Pioneer, WilcoxSolarObs

R.P. Lepping, J.A. Jones, L.F. Burlaga,
Magnetic Field Structure of Interplanetary Magnetic Clouds at 1 AU"
J. Geophysical Research, 95, 11957 (1990)
[** "magnetic clouds"
[ from Lundquist(1950) constant-alpha force-free field solution

G. VanHoven, D.D. Schnack, "Structure and Dynamics of the Coronal Magnetic Field"
[ MHD model ; builds on Parker spiral "

L.F. Burlaga, N.F. Ness, Y.-M. Wang, N.R. Sheeley Jr,
Heliospheric magnetic field strength out to 66 AU: Voyager 1, 1978 - 1996"
[ "consistent with Parker spiral"

D.J. McComas, B.L. Barraclough, H.O. Funstein, J.T. Gosling E. Santiago-Munoz,
R.M. Skough, B.E. Goldstein, M.Neugebauer, P.Riley, A. Balogh
"Solar wind observations over Ulysses' first full polar orbit"
J. Geophysical Research 105, 10419 (2000). Balo01 2001 Balogh, Forsyth, Horbury, Jones Magnetic Fields in 3-D HelioSphere: Ulysses Observations **Data** Much confusion, no comparison to ParkerSpiral

Smit08 2008 Smith The Global HelioSpheric Magnetic Field

Seus08 2008 Suess, Overview

Burl09 Radial and solar cycle variations of the magnetic fields in the heliosheath:
Voyager.1 observations from 2005 to 2008"
J. Geophysical Research 114, A06106 (2009)
2009##Burlaga (Ness, Sheeley) Voyager.I Radial & Sol.Cycle variations |B|~ 0.02-> 0.1nT 94.->108.A.U. |B| correlated with SolWind, Time-Shifted |B|~ 1.5->0.5nT 1.->9.A.U **Fig.5 = "Parker's model" precise fit.

Mack12 2012 Mackay, Yeates Sun's Global Photospheric and Coronal Mag Fields, Obs & Models ?? Living Reviews

Khab12 2012**Khabarova (Obridko) Puzzles of the IMF Parker problems

Khab13 2013**Khabarova IMF: Radial & Latitudinal Numerous problems w/ Parker Frozen-In; but sees NoDeadElephant

leRo15a 2015 (ApJ) leRoux (Zank, Webb, Khabarova)

leRo15b 2015 (jPhyConf) leRoux (Webb, Zank, Khabarova) Merging Small-scale SolarWind FluxRopes -> Ion Acceleration

Fox16 2016 Fox (Bale/McComas SpaceSciRev) "ParkerSolarProbe : Humanity's First" ParkerSpiral,

Myer16 2016 Myers (Yamada, Ji) MRX Flux Ropes : hoop vs strapping vs tension forces

Zirk17 2017 Zirker/Engvold (PhysicsToday) ## "MHD waves of some kind could be the answer" : heat Corona, drive SolWind ** "Alfvenic waves in thin plasma jets called typeII spicules" ## "Alfvenic waves cause no compression ... can propagate in tenuous plasmas with virtually no energy losses" ## "partially ionized prominence plasma is thereby 'frozen" to the magnetic field and may flow only in the direction of the field"

Chen17 2017 Chen Review force-free (JxB=0) Flux_Ropes Obs_&_Theo: CMEs maintain connection to Sun ## Parker Spiral from Alfven !! ## "ideal MHD is difficult to justify" : filaments, resistive photosphere